The goal of dense stereo vision is to reconstruct realistic 3D models from two
or more stereo images. In its most elementary setup, stereo vision is closely
related to the optical flow problem between two images. Compared
to pure optical flow, the motion of the pixels in a stereo setting is
additionally restricted by the geometry of the image pair, the so called
epipolar geometry. The epipolar geometry is determined by the relative
position of the two cameras and by the internal camera parameters, such
as the focal length. The traditional stereo reconstruction pipeline consists of
two main stages: camera calibration and dense matching. Camera
calibration is the retrieval of the external camera pose and orientation as
well as the internal parameters and is typically performed with the help of
sparse image features. Establishing dense correspondences allows for a full 3D
reconstruction and is generally done by global discrete or
continuous optimisation on the rectified images. Knowledge about the epipolar
geometry facilitates the search for correspondences between the images
considerably. Conversely, the estimation of the epipolar geometry can benefit
from a large amount of accurate pixel correspondences, such as provided by
optical flow methods.
We have made contributions to the fully and the partially calibrated stereo
setting. For the fully calibrated setting, it is assumed that the cameras are
either completely calibrated, or that the epipolar geometry of the image pair is
known a priory. In such case, the image correspondence problem reduces to a one
dimensional search along the known epipolar lines. In the partially calibrated
case, only the intrinsic camera parameters are given, but nothing is further
known about the epipolar geometry of the stereo pair. In this case, both the
camera geometry (pose and orientation) and the dense set image correspondences
have to be estimated before a 3D reconstruction of the scene can be performed.
Fully Calibrated Stereo
Optical Flow Goes Stereo
In  a variational approach for dense stereo vision was
presented. It exploits the similarity between optical flow and fully calibrated
stereo by integrating the epipolar constraint as a hard constraint. This
enforces corresponding pixels to lie on epipolar lines. Adding successful
concepts from the accurate optical flow method of Brox
et al., we could further improve the quality of results .
These concepts encompass the use of robust penaliser functions and the gradient
constancy assumption, yielding a method that is robust under varying
illumination and noise.
(a) Left view
(b) Right view
The above figure shows an aerial view of the Pentagon building (available at
CMU VASC Image Database).
The two images form a stereo pair with known epipolar geometry. The left image
is depicted in Fig. (a) and the right image in Fig. (b). A 3D reconstruction
obtained from these two images is shown in Fig.
Robust Multi-View Reconstruction
In order to improve the quality of stereo reconstruction results one can
process more than two images of the same scene. In  we
presented a variational multi-view stereo approach for small baseline distances.
A Novel Anisotropic Disparity-Driven Regularisation Strategy
The smoothness terms used in the previous variational stereo methods suffer
from at least one of the following drawbacks: Either an isotropic
disparity-driven smoothness term is used that ignores the directional
information of the disparity field, or an anisotropic image-driven regulariser
is applied that suffers from oversegmentation artifacts. In  we proposed a novel anisotropic disparity-driven smoothness strategy within a PDE-based framework. It remedies the mentioned drawbacks and allows to improve the quality of disparity estimation. We also showed that an adaptation of the
anisotropic flow-driven optical flow smoothness term does not work for the
| (a) Left view
|| (b) Right view
|| (c) Disparity
| (d) Reconstruction
|| (e) Reconstruction with texture
This figure shows in (a) and (b) a stereo pair depicting the portal of a church
(available from the
The greycoded disparity in (c) was computed with our method from . We visualise the disparity as a heightfield in (d), which
gives an impression of the quality of our results. In (e) we show a
texture-mapped version of the heightfield.
Sophisticated Numerics: An Adaptive Derivative Discretisation Scheme
The implementation of variational approaches requires to discretise occurring
derivatives. Previous works use "standard" central finite difference
approximations to this end. Adopting a successful concept from the theory of
hyperbolic partial differential equations, we presented in  a sophisticated adaptive derivative discretisation scheme.
It blends central and correctly oriented one-sided (upwind) differences based on
a smoothness measure. We found that such a procedure can improve the results for
variational approaches to stereo reconstruction and
flow in the same manner as model refinements.
Estimation of the Fundamental Matrix from Optical Flow
The fundamental matrix competely describes the epipolar geometry of a pair of
stereo images without the need for fully calibrated cameras. In practice, the
fundamental matrix is mostly estimated by matching salient image features such
as SIFT points or KLT features and then minimising a cost function over the
obtained sparse set of correspondences. In  and  we investigate to which extend dense correspondences
resulting from optical flow computation can be used to estimate the fundamental
matrix from a pair of uncalibrated images. It turns out that the large amount of
matches provided by variational optical flow methods and the absence of gross
outliers therein make it possible to obtain accurate estimates using a robust
least-squares fit. We further show that these results are competitive with
state-of-the-art feature based methods that make use of outlier rejection,
robust statistics and advances error meassures.
Joint Estimation of Correspondences and Fundamental Matrix
In  and  we integrate the epipolar
constraint as a soft constraint into the optical flow methods of
et al. and Zimmer
et al.. This provides a coupling between the unknown optical flow (scene
structure) and the unknown epipolar geometry (camera motion). The advantage of a
joint estimation of both unknowns is that the optical flow is not only used to
estimate the fundamental matrix, but that knowledge about the epipolar geometry
is at the same time fed back into the correspondence estimation. This way we
estimate a scene structure that is most consistent with the camera motion. We
demonstrate that this joint method not only improves the estimation of the
fundamental matrix, but also yields better optical flow results then an approach
without epipolar geometry estimation. Since it is often realistic to assume that
the internal camera parameters are known, the relative camera pose and
orientation can be extracted from the fundamental matrix. Our method thereby
combines the two main stages of traditional 3D reconstruction into one
optimisation framework: the recovery of the camera matrices and the scene
| (a) Left view with estimated epipolar lines
|| (b) Right view with estimated epipolar lines
| (c) Untextured reconstruction
This figure shows in (a) and (b) a stereo pair depicting two images from the
Herz-Jesu data set (available from the
Lausanne). The epipolar geoemetry, depicted by the epipolar lines, was
computed with our joint method from  and . In (c) we show an untextured surface reconstruction
obtained from the optical flow and the extracted camera matrices.
L. Alvarez, R. Deriche, J. Sánchez, J. Weickert:
Dense disparity map estimation respecting image derivatives:
a PDE and scale-space based approach.
Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, Vol. 13, No. 1/2,
3-21, March/June 2002.
Revised version of
Technical Report No. 3874, ROBOTVIS, INRIA Sophia-Antipolis,
France, January 2000.
N. Slesareva, A. Bruhn, J. Weickert:
Optical flow goes stereo: A variational method for estimating
discontinuity-preserving dense disparity maps.
In W. Kropatsch, R. Sablatnig, A. Hanbury (Eds.): Pattern Recognition.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 3663, 33-40,
Springer, Berlin, 2005.
Awarded a DAGM 2005 Paper Prize.
N. Slesareva, T. Bühler, K. Hagenburg, J. Weickert, A. Bruhn, Z. Karni,
Robust variational reconstruction from multiple views.
In B.K. Esbøll, K.S. Pedersen(Eds.): Image Analysis.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 4522, 173-182, Springer, Berlin, 2007.
M. Mainberger, A. Bruhn, J. Weickert:
Is dense optic flow useful to compute the fundamental matrix?
Updated version with errata.
In A. Campilho, M. Kamel (Eds.): Image Analysis and Recognition.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5112, 630-639, Springer, Berlin,
L. Valgaerts, A. Bruhn, J. Weickert:
A variational approach for the joint recovery of the fundamental matrix and
the optical flow.
In G. Rigoll (Ed.): Pattern Recognition. Lecture Notes in Computer Science,
Vol. 5096, 314-324, Springer, Berlin, 2008.
H. Zimmer, A. Bruhn, L. Valgaerts, M. Breuß, J. Weickert, B. Rosenhahn,
PDE-based anisotropic disparity-driven stereo vision.
In O. Deussen, D. Keim, D. Saupe (Eds.):
Vision, Modeling, and Visualization 2008.
AKA Heidelberg, 263-272, October 2008.
H. Zimmer, M. Breuß, J. Weickert, H.-P. Seidel:
Hyperbolic numerics for variational approaches to correspondence
In X.-C. Tai et al. (Eds.): Scale-Space and Variational Methods in Computer
Vision. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5567, 636-647, Springer, Berlin,
L. Valgaerts, A. Bruhn, M. Mainberger, J. Weickert:
Dense versus Sparse Approaches for Estimating the Fundamental
International Journal of Computer Vision (IJCV), 2011. Accepted for
Revised version of
Technical Report No. 263,
Department of Mathematics,
Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany,