Supplementary Material Page

Electrostatic Halftoning

Computer Graphics Forum 2010

Christian Schmaltz       Pascal Gwosdek       Andrés Bruhn       Joachim Weickert

Mathematical Image Analysis Group,
Saarland University, Campus E1.1, Saarbrücken, Germany
{schmaltz, gwosdek, bruhn, weickert}

We introduce a new global approach for image dithering, stippling, screening, and sampling. It is inspired by the physical principles of electrostatics. Repelling forces between equally charged particles create a homogeneous distribution in flat areas, while attracting forces from the image brightness values ensure a high approximation quality. Our model is transparent and uses only two intuitive parameters: One steers the granularity of our halftoning approach, and the other its regularity. We evaluate two versions of our algorithm: A discrete version for dithering that ties points to grid positions, as well as a continuous one which does not have this restriction, and can thus be used for stippling or sampling density functions. Our methods create very few visual artefacts, reveal favourable blue-noise behaviour in the frequency domain, and have a lower approximation error under Gaussian convolution than state-of-the-art methods.

Welcome to the supplementary material page for our paper Electrostatic Halftoning which is published in

Computer Graphics Forum, Volume 29, Issue 8, pages 2313-2327, December 2010.

The definite version of our paper is available at It constitutes a revised version of Technical Report No. 260.

The aim of these pages is to provide the reader with additional information that goes beyond the paper's scope, but which might be useful for a deeper understanding. Please choose one of the following topics:

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